The Duchy of Luxemburg (French: Luxembourg, Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire, the ancestral homeland of the noble House of Luxembourg. The House of Luxemburg, now actually the Duke of Limburg, became one of the most important political forces in the 14th century, contending with the House of Habsburg for supremacy in Central Europe. They would be the heirs to the Přemyslid dynasty in the Kingdom of Bohemia, succeeded to the Kingdom of Hungary, and contributed with four Holy Roman Emperors, until their own male line came to an end and the House of Habsburg themselves got the pieces, as the two Houses had actually agreed in the Treaty of Brünn in 1364.
In 1411, Sigismund of Luxembourg lost the duchy to his niece Elisabeth because he defaulted on a loan. Elizabeth later sold the duchy to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good of the House of Valois-Burgundy, who paid her off in 1444. The Dukes of Burgundy had previously acquired a number of other possessions in the Low Countries, including Flanders, Artois, Hainaut, Brabant, Zeeland, Holland, and Namur; Luxembourg and these other Burgundian possessions in the Low Countries are collectively referred to during this period (1384–1482) as the Burgundian Netherlands. The male line of the Dukes of Burgundy died out in 1477 when Philip's son Charles the Bold died at the Battle of Nancy, leaving his only child Mary of Burgundy as his heiress. After his death, Mary married Archduke Maximilian I of the House of Habsburg, who later became Holy Roman Emperor; thereafter the Burgundian Netherlands came under the rule of the House of Habsburg, thereby beginning the period of the Habsburg Netherlands (1482–1581).
Coordinates: 49°45′N 6°10′E / 49.750°N 6.167°E / 49.750; 6.167
Luxembourg i/ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/ (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg; German: Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. It comprises two principal regions: the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif, and the Gutland ("good country") in the south. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres (998 sq mi), it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe (about the same size as the English county of Northamptonshire). Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe.
As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by a grand duke, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and the world's highest GDP (PPP) per capita, according to the United Nations in 2014. Its central location has historically made it of great strategic importance to numerous powers, dating back to its founding as a Roman fortress, its hosting of a vital Frankish castle during the Early Middle Ages, and its role as a bastion for the Spanish Road between the 16th and 17th centuries.
Luxembourg, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Luxembourg or Luxemburg may also refer to:
Luxembourg (Dutch: Luxemburg ; same in German but with a slightly different pronunciation; Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg; Walloon: Lussimbork) is the southernmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. It borders on (clockwise from the east) the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, France, and the Belgian provinces of Namur and Liège. Its capital is Arlon (Luxembourgish: Arel, Dutch: Aarlen), in the south-east of the province.
It has an area of 4,443 km², making it the largest Belgian province. At around a quarter of a million residents, it is also the province with the smallest population, making it the most sparsely populated province in an otherwise very densely populated country.
It is significantly larger (70%) and much less populous than the neighbouring Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
About eighty percent of the province is part of the densely wooded Ardennes region.
The southernmost region of the province is called Gaume or Belgian Lorraine (main city: Virton).
The Arelerland or Arlon region (in red on the following map of the province) alongside the border with the neighbouring Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg has the particularity that many residents speak Luxembourgish instead of the Walloon (French) dialect(s) spoken elsewhere in the province.